Namibia's Constitution and Political SystemThe Legislative Assembly, consisting of all political forces of the country, passed on 9 November, 1990 unanimously Namibia's democratic constitution. It grants the citizens comprehensive civil rights and the equality of all Namibians before the law, which marked the biggest progress compared to the past. Also freedom of speech, religion, assembly and association, protection of privacy and personal property as well as the right to freedom and physical integrity were legally established. Politically, Namibia became a secular presidential democracy with a multi-party system and the classical division of powers between the legislative, executive and jurisdictional bodies.
Legislative Assembly (Parliament)
Namibia has a two-chamber parliament with the National Assembly and the National Council. The 72 members of the National Assembly are elected every 5 years according to proportional representation. Additionally, 6 members are nominated directly by the president.
Photo: The National Assembly resides in the "Tintenpalast" - Ink Palace - in the centre of Windhoek. The building stems in its original shape from the German colonial era, inaugurated in 1913. The name is an allusion to the occupation of the numerous "pen pushers" and officials, employed in the administration. The name has been kept till today.
The National Assembly has the sole legislative power and can repeal decisions of the government by a two-third majority of the representatives. The National Council composes of 26 members from 13 different regions of Namibia. These regional councils are elected for 6 years by the people. They have an advisory function.
The Namibian president heads the executive. He is elected directly by the people for a term of 5 years as both, the head of state and the head of government. The president nominates the Prime Minister and the 22 cabinet members.
The Namibian judiciary is independent according to the constitution. It comprises three court authorities, the Supreme Court as the highest court of appeal, the High Court and the lower Courts.